Black-tailed deer – Wikipedia – Black Deer Questions

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Two forms of black-tailed deer or blacktail deer that occupy coastal woodlands in the Pacific Northwest of North America are subspecies of the mule deer Odocoileus hemionus. They have sometimes been treated as a species, but virtually all recent authorities maintain they are subspecies.

The black-tailed deer lives along the Pacific coast from western California up through Alaska. East of the Cascade and Sierra Nevada Ranges in Oregon and California, black-tailed deer are replaced by mule deer which have a different tail pattern. The black-tailed deer is currently common in California, [12] western Oregon, Washington, in coastal and interior British Columbia, and north into the Alaskan panhandle.

It is a popular game animal. All recent authorities maintain it as a subspecies of the mule deer O. These two subspecies thrive on the edge of the forest, as the dark forest lacks the underbrush and grasslands the deer prefer as food, and completely open areas lack the hiding spots and cover they prefer for harsh weather.

One of the plants that black-tailed deer browse is western poison oak , despite its irritant content. Deer are browsers. During the winter and early spring, they feed on Douglas fir, western red cedar, red huckleberry, salal, deer fern, and lichens growing on trees. Late spring to fall, they consume grasses, blackberries, apples, fireweed, pearly everlasting, forbs, salmonberry, salal, and maple. The mating or ‘rutting’ season occurs during November and early December.

Bucks can be observed running back and forth across the roads in the pursuit of does. After the rut, the bucks tend to hide and rest, often nursing wounds. They suffer broken antlers, and have lost weight. They drop their antlers between January and March. Antlers on the forest floor provide a source of calcium and other nutrients to other forest inhabitants. Bucks regrow their antlers beginning in April through to August. The gestation period for does is 6—7 months, with fawns being born in late May and into June.

Twins are the rule, although young does often have only single fawns. Triplets can also occur. Fawns weigh 2. This enables the mother to leave the fawn hidden while she goes off to browse and replenish her body after giving birth.

She must also eat enough to produce enough milk to feed her fawns. Does are very protective of their young and humans are viewed as predators. Deer communicate with the aid of scent and pheromones from several glands located on the lower legs. The metatarsal outside of lower leg produces an alarm scent, the tarsal inside of hock serves for mutual recognition and the interdigital between the toes leave a scent trail when deer travel.

Deer have excellent sight and smell. Their large ears can move independently of each other and pick up any unusual sounds that may signal danger. At dawn, dusk, and moonlit nights, deer are seen browsing on the roadside. Wooded areas with forests on both sides of the road and open, grassy areas, i.

Caution when driving is prudent because often as one deer crosses, another one or two follow. In Southeast Alaska, the Sitka deer is the primary prey of the rare Alexander Archipelago wolf Canis lupus ligoni , which is endemic to the region. The protections for the wolf included a standard and guideline intended to retain, in the face of logging losses, enough habitat carrying capacity for deer in winter to assure the viability of the Alexander Archipelago wolf and an adequate supply of deer for hunters.

The needed carrying capacity was originally specified as 13 deer per square mile, but was corrected in to Use of a deer model is specified for determining carrying capacity, and is the only tool available for the purpose.

However, the Forest Service’s implementation of the deer provision in the Tongass wolf standard and guideline has been controversial for many years, and led to a lawsuit by Greenpeace and Cascadia Wildlands in , over four logging projects. The data set the Forest Service was using in the deer model was known through the agency’s own study done in to generally overestimate the carrying capacity for deer and underestimate the impacts of logging.

Regarding the Traitors Cove Timber Sales project, in the plaintiffs noted in oral arguments before the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals that the difference is between a claimed 21 deer per square mile carrying capacity in the project EIS, and 9. The 9th Circuit panel ruled unanimously on August 2, , in favor of the plaintiffs, remanding the four timber sale decisions to the Forest Service and giving guidance for what is necessary during reanalysis of impacts to deer.

We do not think that USFS has adequately explained its decision to approve the four logging projects in the Tongass. USFS has failed to explain how it ended up with a table that identifies deer per square mile as a maximum carrying capacity, but allows deer per square mile as a potential carrying capacity. Coast Fed’n of Fisherman’s Ass’ns v. Bureau of Reclamation, F. We have similar questions about USFS’s use of VolStrata data, which identifies total timber volume and not forest structure, to approve the projects, where forest structure—and not total timber volume—is relevant to the habitability of a piece of land.

Because we must remand to the agency to re-examine its Deer Model, we need not decide whether the use of the VolStrata data was arbitrary and capricious. We anticipate that, in reviewing the proposed projects, USFS will use the best available data In a statement to the press, a spokesman for the plaintiffs said the errors in this lawsuit apply to every significant Tongass timber sale decision between and , before the Forest Service corrected errors in the deer model when the agency issued its revised Tongass Forest Plan in But he said despite those corrections, the agency still fails to address cumulative impacts to deer, especially on Prince of Wales Island, as is being challenged in the Logjam timber sale lawsuit, by ignoring substantial logging on nonfederal lands.

District Court in Anchorage made a second remand to the Forest Service because the agency’s further work under the first remand had not resolved the modeling issues.

Activity on the four timber sales involved in the litigation has been suspended since From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Subspecies of deer. Retrieved 12 November Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN OCLC Walker’s Mammals of the World.

Tails with a dark side: The truth about whitetail — mule deer hybrids. Mammals of North America. Deer of the world: their evolution, behaviour, and ecology. Thompson, and J. Chapman, editors Wild mammals of North America: biology, management, and conservation. Ministry of Env. Undated Mule and black-tailed deer in British Columbia. Ministry of Forests. Coastal Black-Tailed Deer Study , linking to five reports.

Kodiak National Wildlife Refuge. Last updated: April 6, Home range, habitat use, disturbance, and mortality of Columbian black-tailed deer in Mendocino National Forest.

California Fish and Game — Nicklas Stromberg. Alaska ; Kirchhoff, M. Portland, OR: U. The 13 deer per square mile carrying capacity was an error, corrected in to 17, and in to 18 deer per square mile. Retrieved on Deconstructing the Tongass Timber Paradigm. Cole plaintiffs generally, and at concerning Traitors Cove. Recording includes arguments by Winters and federal attorney Charles Scott, and Winter’s rebuttal. August 2, Juneau Empire, August 3, Court sends four timber sale plans back for reworking , by Joe Viechnicki.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Odocoileus hemionus columbianus. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Articles with short description Short description is different from Wikidata Articles with ‘species’ microformats All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from June Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history. Help Learn to edit Community portal Recent changes Upload file.

Download as PDF Printable version. Wikimedia Commons Wikispecies. Young male black-tailed deer Olympic National Park. Odocoileus hemionus columbianus Richardson,

 
 

 

Black Deer: Have You Seen This Rare Color of a Common Animal?

 
The blacktail and the whitetail are different species. The blacktail deer then split off a subspecies, the mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), which is. The Columbian black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) is found in western North America, from Northern California into the Pacific Northwest of the. Black, or melanistic, white-tailed deer are a rare sight. Here’s what you need to know.

 
 

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