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For India and other South Asian nations, home to hundreds of millions of humanity’s most vulnerable, a seemingly bottomless well of challenges — poverty, food security, health, . Therefore, the term “India” is something that ought to be embraced by other South Asian countries. In a strange way the Hindu right is correct, but not in the way they see it. . India suspects China is routing goods to India through their common trade partners in South Asia under the South Asian Free Trade Area (SAFTA), and by taking advantage of bilateral .

South Asian Countries – International and Area Studies Library – U of I Library.

› place › South-Asia. South Asian ethnic groups are an ethnolinguistic grouping of the diverse populations of South Asia, including the nations of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh.


India, South Asia and ASEAN should think big—must integrate for global good, says ADB economist.South Asian ethnic groups – Wikipedia


For the most part, the climate of the region is called the Monsoon climate, which keeps the region humid during summer and dry during winter, and favours the cultivation of jute , tea, rice, and various vegetables in this region. South Asia is largely divided into four broad climate zones: []. South Asia depends critically on monsoon rainfall.

The warmest period of the year precedes the monsoon season March to mid June. In the summer the low pressures are centered over the Indus-Gangetic Plain and high wind from the Indian Ocean blows towards the center. The monsoons are the second coolest season of the year because of high humidity and cloud covering.

The change is violent. Moderately vigorous monsoon depressions form in the Bay of Bengal and make landfall from June to September. Climate change in South Asia is causing a range of challenges including sea level rise , cyclonic activity, and changes in ambient temperature and precipitation patterns.

This list includes dependent territories within their sovereign states including uninhabited territories , but does not include claims on Antarctica. The population of South Asia is about 1. There are numerous languages in South Asia. The spoken languages of the region are largely based on geography and shared across religious boundaries, but the written script is sharply divided by religious boundaries.

Till , Muslim-majority Bangladesh then known as East Pakistan also mandated only the Nastaliq script, but after that adopted regional scripts and particularly Bengali, after the Language Movement for the adoption of Bengali as the official language of the then East Pakistan. Non-Muslims of South Asia, and some Muslims in India, on the other hand, use scripts such as those derived from Brahmi script for Indo-European languages and non-Brahmi scripts for Dravidian languages and others.

The Nagari script has been the primus inter pares of the traditional South Asian scripts. The spoken language is similar, but it is written in three scripts. The Gurmukhi and Nagari scripts are distinct but close in their structure, but the Persian Nastaliq script is very different. English, with British spelling, is commonly used in urban areas and is a major economic lingua franca of South Asia.

In , South Asia had the world’s largest population of Hindus , [16] about million Muslims , [16] over 27 million Sikhs, 35 million Christians and over 25 million Buddhists.

Indian religions are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism , Jainism , Buddhism and Sikhism. Later Sindh , Balochistan , and parts of the Punjab region saw conquest by the Arab caliphates along with an influx of Muslims from Persia and Central Asia, which resulted in spread of both Shia and Sunni Islam in parts of northwestern region of South Asia.

South Asia is home to some of the most populated urban areas in the world. According to the edition of Demographia World Urban Areas , the region contains 8 of the world’s 35 megacities urban areas over 10 million population : []. It is the fastest-growing major economy in the world and one of the world’s fastest registering a growth of 7. It has the fastest GDP growth rate in Asia.

It is one of the emerging and growth-leading economies of the world, and is also listed among the Next Eleven countries. It is also one of the fastest-growing middle-income countries.

According to a World Bank report in , driven by a strong expansion in India, coupled with favorable oil prices, from the last quarter of South Asia became the fastest-growing region in the world []. Bhutan, Maldives and Sri Lanka have the lowest number of people below the poverty line, with 2. India has lifted the most people in the region above the poverty line between and , with around million being raised from the poverty line.

As of , One of the key challenges in assessing the quality of education in South Asia is the vast range of contextual difference across the region, complicating any attempt to compare between countries.

Only sub-Saharan Africa had a higher rate of children not learning. Two-thirds of these children were in school, sitting in classrooms. Only 19 percent of children attending primary and lower secondary schools attaining a minimum proficiency level in reading and mathematics. In South Asia, classrooms are teacher-centred and rote-based, while children are often subjected to corporal punishment and discrimination.

While by India and Pakistan has two of the most developed and increasingly decentralised education systems, Bangladesh still had a highly centralised system, and Nepal is in a state of transition from a centralized to a decentralized system.

But parents are still faced with unmanageable secondary financial demands, including private tuition to make up for the inadequacies of the education system. The larger and poorer countries in the region, like India and Bangladesh, struggle financially to get sufficient resources to sustain an education system required for their vast populations, with an added challenge of getting large numbers of out-of-school children enrolled into schools.

Children’s education in the region is also adversely affected by natural and human-made crises including natural hazards, political instability, rising extremism and civil strife that makes it difficult to deliver educational services.

The precarious security situation in Afghanistan is a big barrier in rolling out education programmes on a national scale. According to UNICEF, girls face incredible hurdles to pursue their education in the region, [] while UNESCO estimated in that 24 million girls of primary-school age in the region were not receiving any formal education.

With about 21 million students in universities and 40 thousand colleges India had the one of the largest higher education systems in the world in , accounting for 86 percent of all higher-level students in South Asia. Bangladesh two million and Pakistan 1. In Nepal thousand and Sri Lanka thousand the numbers were much smaller. Bhutan with only one university and Maldives with none hardly had between them about students in higher education in The gross enrolment ratio in ranged from about 10 percent in Pakistan and Afghanistan to above 20 percent in India, much below the global average of 31 percent.

Their attacks on immunization teams have claimed 78 lives since December The World Bank estimates that India is one of the highest ranking countries in the world for the number of children suffering from malnutrition. The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world and is nearly double that of Sub Saharan Africa with dire consequences for mobility, mortality, productivity, and economic growth. In , approximately million people in the region were malnourished.

In India, the malnourished comprise just over 15 percent of the population. While the number of malnourished people in the neighborhood has shown a decline over the last 25 years, the number of under-nourished in Pakistan displays an upward trend.

There were Approximately The report stated, “the low status of women in South Asian countries and their lack of nutritional knowledge are important determinants of high prevalence of underweight children in the region”. Corruption and the lack of initiative on the part of the government has been one of the major problems associated with nutrition in India. Illiteracy in villages has been found to be one of the major issues that need more government attention.

The report mentioned that although there has been a reduction in malnutrition due to the Green Revolution in South Asia, there is concern that South Asia has “inadequate feeding and caring practices for young children”.

National Assembly. House of Representatives. India is a secular federative parliamentary republic with the prime minister as head of government. With most populous functional democracy in world [] and world’s longest written constitution, [] [] [] India has been stably sustaining the political system it adopted in with no regime change except that by a democratic election.

India’s sustained democratic freedoms are unique among the world’s newer establishments. Since the formation of its republic abolishing British law , it has remained a democracy with civil liberties, an active Supreme Court, and a largely independent press.

It has a multi-party system in its internal regional politics [] whereas alternative transfer of powers to alliances of Indian left-wing and right-wing political parties in national government provide it with characteristics of a two-party state. Foundation of Pakistan lies in Pakistan movement started in colonial India based on Islamic nationalism. Pakistan is a federal parliamentary Islamic republic and was the world’s first country to adopt Islamic republic system to modify its republican status under its otherwise secular constitution in Pakistan’s governance is one of the most conflicted in the world.

The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan has become a concern for the South Asian region. Out of 22 appointed Pakistani Prime ministers , none has been able to complete a full term in office. Pakistan’s governance is one of the most conflicted in the region.

The military rule and the unstable government in Pakistan have become a concern for the South Asian region. The unitary semi-presidential constitutional republic of Sri Lanka is oldest sustained democracy in Asia.

Tensions between Sinhalese and Tamils led to Sri Lankan civil war that undermined the country’s stability for more than two and a half decades. The political situation in Sri Lanka has been dominated by an increasingly assertive Sinhalese nationalism, and the emergence of a Tamil separatist movement under LTTE , which was suppressed in May Bangladesh is a unitary parliamentary republic.

Law of Bangladesh defines it as both Islamic [] as well as secular. Bangladesh is a unitary state and parliamentary democracy. Although Bangladesh’s legal code is secular, more citizens are embracing a conservative version of Islam , with some pushing for sharia law , analysts say.

Experts say that the rise in conservatism reflects the influence of foreign-financed Islamic charities and the more austere version of Islam brought home by migrant workers in Persian Gulf countries. By the 18th century, the Hindu Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal.

Hinduism became the state religion and Hindu laws were formulated as national policies. A small oligarchic group of Gorkha region based Hindu Thakuri and Chhetri political families dominated the national politics, military and civic affairs until the abdication of the Rana dynasty regime and establishment of Parliamentary democratic system in , which was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in and It was the last Hindu state in world before becoming a secular democratic republic in The country’s modern development suffered due to the various significant events like the Nepalese revolution , — Nepalese Civil War , April Nepal earthquake and the Nepal blockade by India leading to the grave — Nepal humanitarian crisis.

There is also a huge turnover in the office of the Prime Minister of Nepal leading to serious concerns of political instability. The country has been ranked one of the poor countries in terms of GDP per capita but it has one of the lowest levels of hunger problem in South Asia. Afghanistan has been a unitary theocratic Islamic emirate since Afghanistan has been suffering from one of the most unstable regimes on earth as a result of multiple foreign invasions, civil wars, revolutions and terrorist groups.

Persisting instability for decades have left the country’s economy stagnated and torn and it remains one of the most poor and least developed countries on the planet, leading to the influx of Afghan refugees to neighboring countries like Iran. Bhutan is a Buddhist state with a constitutional monarchy.

The country has been ranked as the least corrupt and peaceful with most economic freedom in the region in Myanmar ‘s politics is dominated by a military Junta , which has sidelined the democratic forces led by Aung San Suu Kyi. Maldives is a unitary presidential republic with Sunni Islam strictly as the state religion. India has been the dominant geopolitical power in the region [] [] [] and alone accounts for most part of the landmass, population, economy and military expenditure in the region.

Bangladesh , Pakistan and Sri Lanka are middle powers with sizeable populations and economies with significant impact on regional politics. During the Partition of India in , subsequent violence and territorial disputes left relations between India and Pakistan sour and very hostile [] and various confrontations and wars which largely shaped the politics of the region and led to the creation of Bangladesh.

The Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in accelerated efforts to form a union to restrengthen deteriorating regional security. South Asia continues to remain least integrated region in the world.

Populism is a general characteristic of internal politics of India. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 7 October Southern region of Asia. Official languages. Other languages. Khasi Santali. Sri Lanka Malay. Turkmen Uzbek. Maldives Pakistan.

India Sri Lanka. Bangladesh Bhutan. See also: Indology. For a topical guide, see Outline of South Asian history. Saru Maru. Taxila Aramaic. Laghman Aramaic. Ahraura Sasaram. Kandahar Greek and Aramaic. Lumbini Nigali Sagar. Araraj , Rampurva. Ai Khanoum Greek city. Further information: War in Afghanistan — and Indo-Pakistani wars and conflicts. Main article: Indian Plate.

Af Tropical rainforest. Am Tropical monsoon. BWh Hot desert. BWk Cold desert. BSh Hot semi arid. BSk Cold semi arid. Csa Mediterranean , dry, hot summer. Cfa Subtropical , humid. Cwa Subtropical , humid summer, dry winter. Cwb Subtropical highland , dry winter. Dsa Continental , hot summer. Dsb Continental , warm summer. Dwb Continental , dry winter. Dwc Continental Subarctic , dry winter. See also: Exclusive economic zone and Indian Ocean.

See also: South Asian ethnic groups. Main article: Languages of South Asia. A map of major denominations and religions of the world. Worldwide Importance of Religion, []. Islam Buddhism and Jainism 1. Sikhism 0. Christianity 0. Others 2. Religion not known 0.

Main category: Sport in South Asia. See also: List of legislatures in South Asia and List of countries by system of government. Sansad Bhavan , New Delhi, India. Parliament House, Islamabad , Pakistan. Jatiya Sangsad Bhaban , Dhaka , Bangladesh. Asia portal. Remarkable cave paintings have been preserved from Mesolithic sites dating from c. The worship of certain plants and animals as sacred, for instance, could very likely have very great antiquity.

The worship of goddesses, too, a part of Hinduism today, maybe a feature that originated in the Neolithic. United Nations. Retrieved 16 July International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 December Regional and Country Profiles South Asia. Institute of Development Studies. Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 28 February United Nations Statistics Division. Archived from the original on 17 April Retrieved 31 January Institute of Development Studies Archived from the original on 15 June Archived from the original on 10 November Retrieved 5 November Archived from the original on 1 June Archived from the original on 17 November BBC News.

Archived from the original on 29 July Retrieved 21 July Archived from the original on 5 September The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Archived from the original on 2 April Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on 16 December Retrieved 17 December South Asian Regional Development Gateway. Archived from the original on 21 November It gained currency subsequently and was adopted by the Western countries including the United States, which has a separate bureau in its state department looking at south and central Asia.

The term South Asia gained further legitimacy as countries in the southern Asian region too began to widely use it. Skip to main content.

You are here Home » Ask an Expert. Is it one and the same? However, English is the medium of instruction in the schools. As listed by Ethnologue, 24 languages are currently spoken in Bhutan, where all but Nepali belong to Tibeto-Burman family. Based on a global survey in , Bhutan was rated as the happiest country in Asia and the eighth-happiest in the world.

India is the largest country of South Asia and the seventh-largest country in the world by area. Because of the vastness of the country and variety of culture within different states, there is no national language in India.

However, Hindi is the official language of the government and is spoken by the majority of people. English also has the status of official language in the country and is used extensively in higher education, business and education.

Each state and union territory has one or more official languages. In addition, Tamil, Sanskrit, Telegu, Kannada, Malayalam and Oriya were awarded the distinction of classical language. Maldives is an island nation in the Indian Ocean-Arabian sea area.

It is the smallest Asian country in both population and area. The official and common language of the country is Dhivehi, which is an Indo-Aryan language. The script used to write Dhivehi has changed over time. The first known script as Eveyla akuru script, which is found in historical recording of kings. Then the script known as Dhives akuru was used for a long period. The script used at present is called Thaana, which is said to be introduced during the reign of Mohamed Thakurufaanu and is written from right to left.

Nepal is one of the three landlocked countries in South Asia. The country holds diverse linguistic heritage, stemming from four major language groups: Indo-Aryan, Tibeto-Burman, Mongolian and different indigenous language isolates. Nepali is the official national language and is spoken by almost half of the population Derived from Sanskri, Nepali is written in Devanagari script.


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